Today in history
- Concordat of Worms (1122)
The Concordat of Worms was an agreement reached by Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V that put an end to the first phase of the power struggle between Rome and what was becoming the Holy Roman Empire. Under its terms, the king was recognized as having the right to invest bishops "by the lance" but not "by ring and staff," meaning he could grant them secular but not sacred authority. What message about the divine right of kings did the concordat convey? Discuss
- Sara Jane Moore Attempts to Assassinate US President Gerald Ford (1975)
In September 1975, Ford was the target of two assassination attempts. Just 17 days after Manson Family member Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme unsuccessfully attempted to shoot Ford, Moore shot at him outside a San Francisco, California, hotel. The bullet just missed the president, and Moore was then subdued by a bystander, who likely saved Ford's life. Moore was sentenced to life in prison but was paroled in 2007. What has she since said about the assassination attempt?
- J.R.R. Tolkien's The Hobbit Is Published (1937)
The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien, a professor of Anglo-Saxon and of English language and literature at Oxford University. Adapted from stories Tolkien told his kids, The Hobbit is recognized as a classic in children's literature but also attracts adult readers. Its sequel, The Lord of the Rings, is one of the 20th century's most popular and influential works of fantasy literature. What changes did Tolkien make to later editions of The Hobbit?